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Can Elderberry Juice Really Fight Flu Virus?

Australian researchers discovered that elderberry juice can keep influenza virus from infecting cells as well as keep the virus from replicating.
Can Elderberry Juice Really Fight Flu Virus?

Elderberries and elderberry juice have long had a reputation for fighting the flu. Most physicians undoubtedly have considered this just another old wives’ tale. Surprisingly, however, scientists in Australia have recently clarified a mechanism (Torabian et al, Journal of Functional Foods, March 2019). They found that elderberry compounds have anti-influenza activity.

How Elderberry Juice Affects Influenza Virus:

Using juice from commercially grown elderberries, the researchers investigated the effects on human cells during the process of viral infection. The chemicals in the elderberry juice kept the influenza virus from getting into the cells to infect them. Moreover, after cells had been infected, exposure to the juice kept the virus from replicating and spreading to new cells.

Alerting the Immune System:

Even more important, in response to elderberry compounds, the cells released cytokines. These inflammatory chemical signals alert the immune system to the presence of a pathogen. Apparently the protective phytochemicals are anthocyanidins, compounds that give the berries their deep purple coloration. 

This is not the first study to find that elderberry compounds prevent influenza infection (Roschek et al, Phytochemistry, July 2009). However, these are test-tube studies. We need more clinical trials.

Moreover, we need the scientists to reveal potential conflicts of interest, which these Australian investigators did not do. As a result, the university has retracted the publication.  

Clinical Trials of Elderberry Juice:

In one previous pilot study, people who took elderberry syrup recovered from the flu four days sooner than those taking placebo (Zakay-Rones et al, Journal of International Medical Research, Mar-Apr. 2004). Beyond that, a systematic review revealed that elderberry reduces upper respiratory symptoms of influenza and colds (Hawkins et al, Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Feb. 2019).

Does Elderberry Extract Fight Colds?

We have heard previously from readers who are convinced that taking elderberry products can clear up colds more quickly. Here’s one person’s story and our response. 

Q. I have found that elderberry extract really helps against the common cold. If I start taking it soon enough, I can keep the cold from getting a foothold.

A. German researchers note that a standardized elderberry extract is active against bacteria and viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infections (Krawitz et al, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Feb. 25, 2011). Although the preliminary research is promising, scientists need to conduct more clinical studies (Vlachojannis et al, Phytotherapy Research, Jan. 2010).

MR is an elderberry enthusiast:

“Elderberry extract is by far my favorite cold remedy, or rather preventive remedy. I no longer get colds, because I always take elderberry extract at the first sign of one. I do not fear catching the flu, because elderberry extract is such a great anti-viral agent.”

DP agrees:

“I take elderberry syrup and sometimes the capsule. Can’t tell which is better. They both work if taken with the first sneezes and runny nose. I love the taste of the syrup. I also take Andrographis, Astralagus and Echinacea. Why these remedies work, I haven’t a clue. But double-blind studies have been done on them. All I know is they have to be from a very reputable herb company or they may not be efficacious.

“I have stopped many a virus trying to make in-roads into my respiratory system. The trick is not to take these immune boosters unless you feel symptoms or have been severely stressed, i.e. lack of sleep several nights… Take every day and the body will adjust to them being on board and they will no longer work as well.”

More About Elderberry:

The elderberry extract used in the studies comes from the European elder, Sambucus nigra. American elder, Sambucus canadensis, grows in many parts of the US. We like to collect and dry the flowers from our American elder shrubs in the summer. Then we use them in winter to make a soothing tea for coughs or colds. Be sure not use leaves, stems, bark or unripe berries, as they contain compounds related to cyanide.

However, you don’t have to grow your own elderberry bushes. You could purchase commercial products such as Sambucol or Zand Zumka. If you are interested, you can learn about other herbal remedies for colds in our Guide to Colds, Coughs & the Flu.

Updated 5/22/19

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About the Author
Terry Graedon, PhD, is a medical anthropologist and co-host of The People’s Pharmacy radio show, co-author of The People’s Pharmacy syndicated newspaper columns and numerous books, and co-founder of The People’s Pharmacy website. Terry taught in the Duke University School of Nursing and was an adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Anthropology. She is a Fellow of the Society of Applied Anthropology. Terry is one of the country's leading authorities on the science behind folk remedies. .
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  • Torabian G et al, " Anti-influenza activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra)." Journal of Functional Foods, March 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2019.01.031
  • Roschek B Jr et al, "Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro." Phytochemistry, July 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.06.003
  • Zakay-Rones Z et al, " Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections." Journal of International Medical Research, Mar-Apr. 2004. DOI: 10.1177/147323000403200205
  • Hawkins J et al, "Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials." Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Feb. 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2018.12.004
  • Krawitz C et al, "Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Feb. 25, 2011. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-16
  • Vlachojannis JE et al, "A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles." Phytotherapy Research, Jan. 2014. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2729
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