The People's Perspective on Medicine

When Is Combination Therapy Better Than Synthroid?

Some people who don't feel completely well on levothyroxine alone do better on combination therapy. This includes both T4 and the active hormone T3.
Armour brand desiccated thyroid extract

Doctors prescribe the thyroid hormone treatment levothyroxine (Euthyrox, Levoxyl, Synthroid, Tirosint, Unithroid) more frequently than most other drugs in the pharmacy. Although levothyroxine alone is the standard treatment for people with underactive thyroid glands, not everyone taking this medication feels well. Could combination therapy work better than this single hormone?

Will Combination Therapy Work Better Than Synthroid?

Q. My thyroid gland was removed three years ago. I have never felt right on Synthroid. I’ve also tried a combination of Synthroid and Cytomel and recently Armour Thyroid.

Of all three, I’ve found Armour Thyroid is the best. I split it and take multiple doses throughout the day to avoid heart palpitations.

Most endocrinologists as well as primary care physicians adjust the thyroid dose based on the TSH test. That will be low when you take T3 (which is a natural part of Armour Thyroid). I’ve been informed that the blood test should be done in the early AM and food and thyroid meds shouldn’t be taken for 12 hours before blood is drawn for labs.

People Who Don’t Do Well on Levothyroxine Alone:

A. We consulted one of the world’s foremost authorities on thyroid function, Dr. Antonio Bianco, professor of medicine at the University of Chicago School of Medicine. He has found that up to 15 percent of patients don’t feel good on levothyroxine alone (Thyroid, June 2018). This may be due at least in part to genetic differences in the enzymes that convert T4 (levothyroxine) to the active T3 hormone (triiodothyronine) (Frontiers in Endocrinology, July 9, 2019).

Dr. Bianco points to evidence that a normal TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) does not necessarily indicate optimal thyroid hormone activity throughout the body. Although most endocrinologists still use TSH as the gold standard and prescribe levothyroxine alone as treatment, Dr. Bianco suggests that treatment should be personalized. He and his colleagues look forward to prescribing a combination therapy that will be individualized and provide the hormones patients need. Armour and other desiccated thyroid extracts made from pig thyroid glands fall short. That’s because the ratio of T3 to T4 is different in pigs and humans.

As for the blood test, your advice is good. TSH levels are significantly lower after the morning meal (Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, May-June 2017) than before it. Levels of free T4 do not appear to be affected by the time of day or whether the patient is fasting.

Who Will Benefit from Combination Therapy for Hypothyroidism?

The goal is for patients to feel good. For some patients, this will mean using combination therapy or desiccated thyroid extract such as Armour. Others do well on levothyroxine but may need to adjust when they take their medication. Synthroid, Levoxyl and probably generic levothyroxine may not be absorbed as well if taken at the same time as iron or calcium supplements. Even coffee can reduce absorption, so some people find that taking their thyroid hormone at bedtime works well.

Learn More:

People who would like to learn more about treating thyroid problems with combination therapy may wish to read our eGuide to Thyroid Hormones. You might also wish to listen to our interview with Dr. Bianco, which you can find here.

Rate this article
4.4- 74 ratings
About the Author
Terry Graedon, PhD, is a medical anthropologist and co-host of The People’s Pharmacy radio show, co-author of The People’s Pharmacy syndicated newspaper columns and numerous books, and co-founder of The People’s Pharmacy website. Terry taught in the Duke University School of Nursing and was an adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Anthropology. She is a Fellow of the Society of Applied Anthropology. Terry is one of the country's leading authorities on the science behind folk remedies. .
Thyroid Hormones

What symptoms signal thyroid trouble? This extensive guide to Thyroid Hormones has critical info on testing, treatment, and side effects.

Thyroid Hormones
  • Peterson SJ et al, "An online survey of hypothyroid patients demonstrates prominent dissatisfaction." Thyroid, June 2018. DOI: 10.1089/thy.2017.0681
  • McAninch EA & Bianco AC, "The swinging pendulum in treatment for hypothyroidism: From (and toward?) combination therapy." Frontiers in Endocrinology, July 9, 2019.
  • Mahadevan S et al, "Does time of sampling or food intake alter thyroid function test?" Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, May-June 2017. DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_15_17
Join over 150,000 Subscribers at The People's Pharmacy

We're empowering you to make wise decisions about your own health, by providing you with essential health information about both medical and alternative treatment options.

Showing 5 comments
Add your comment

After many years working on getting a good dose for thyroid medication, I now take Synthroid and a compounded extended release T3. Insurance/Medicare does not cover the compounded T3, but it makes such a difference that I pay for it. It has taken more than 15 years to get to this point…….sigh.

And Medicare drug plans won’t cover the natural drugs! Nature thyroid is cheaper than Armour and has been back- ordered for more than a year but I finally found a non-chain pharmacy that is carrying it again! I didn’t see any difference after switching back.

Armour and Cytomil are a great combination for me! I’m glad you shared this article and hoping it helps other people. I need T3 for energy levels, so this really helped. Couldn’t get an endocrinologist to prescribe it, so my GP had to.

Good article, thank you. Synthroid or the generic never worked for me, but most endocrinologists and conventional docs seem to push this popular thyroid drug. I tried different ones until I got on Nature Throid, and that is when I hit the jackpot! (or I should say, my thyroid did). I am Hypo due to Hashimoto’s and this thyroid drug has proven for me the best. I found an integrative MD who actually listened to how I felt, vs the almighty TSH values. I have been using this for over 25 years.

In the UK doctor’s can’t prescribe T3; I was told by my specialist that whereas at one time it was cheap, the pharmaceutical industry raised the price so much that it became prohibitive on the NHS. Now T3 can only be obtained on a private prescription.

* Be nice, and don't over share. View comment policy^