Avoiding tick-borne diseases starts with preventing tick bites to the extent possible. Outdoor enthusiasts are turning to a new tactic: the right clothes, which are those coated with permethrin.
Testing the Right Clothes:
A recent study in the Journal of Medical Entomology shows that permethrin incapacitates ticks quickly (Journal of Medical Entomology, May 24, 2018). This compound is related to extracts from chrysanthemums. When researchers tested blacklegged tick nymphs on permethrin-impregnated cloth, they died in less than a minute. Larger ticks and other species of ticks may be more resistant, but even they became inactive when exposed to permethrin. As a result, they find it difficult or impossible to bite.
Are the Right Clothes Safe?
According to the EPA, permethrin factory-treated clothing is unlikely to pose any significant hazard to people who wear it. On the contrary, it seems to provide significant protection from a number of serious illnesses. (Some brands to look for include InsectShield, Bugsaway and NosiLife. You can also buy 0.5% permethrin and coat your own clothing.)
It may be a bit cumbersome to don long pants and long sleeves on hot days, but sensible tick protection includes covering as much skin as possible with clothing, and using an effective repellent on exposed skin. The CDC recommends DEET, picaridin, IR3535, Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus (OLE), para-menthane-diol (PMD), or 2-undecanone to deter ticks.
Other Advice on Avoiding Ticks:
The CDC also recommends staying in the center of hiking trails. That should keep you away from tall grasses, leaf litter or brushy areas where ticks like to hang out. When you come inside, take off your clothing and toss it in the dryer for 10 minutes to kill the ticks. While you are undressed, check your body for ticks and remove any that you find. The CDC also recommends that you shower within two hours of coming in, which also makes the tick check a bit more convenient. Be sure to check your groin, underarms, bellybutton, hair and ears, since ticks often hide there and might be missed.