It seemed like a good idea at the time. California required furniture makers to put flame retardants in their upholstery to delay combustion and give people extra time to escape a fire. What’s not to like about this idea?

Well, it turns out that some of the chemicals that are frequently used as flame retardants in sofas and chairs are endocrine disruptors and may also be carcinogenic. That means they could affect hormonal and neurological function and might increase the possibility of developing cancer.

Does Tris ring a bell? This chemical made headlines back in the 1970s because it was added to children’s pajamas as a flame retardant. When it was discovered that Tris was a mutagen and a possible carcinogen it created a lot of controversy and was eventually removed from the market. A new study just published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology reveals that Tris did not disappear from our lives. According to the scientists, 41 percent of the foam from couches they tested contained Tris.

The investigators analyzed samples of polyurethane foam from 102 couches around the country. They found toxic or untested flame retardants in 85 percent of the foam they analyzed. In older sofas, PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ether) was common. This was banned in 2005, but there is a lot of furniture still in people’s homes that contains this flame retardant. Previous studies have linked PBDEs to thyroid problems (Environmental Health Perspectives [EHP], December, 2007).

There’s an epidemic of thyroid disease in the U.S. and no one seems to know quite why. It has been quietly growing for years. Nearly 90 million prescriptions are dispensed for thyroid medications each year, and that doesn’t even count the millions of people with undiagnosed thyroid problems. Some experts estimate that as many as one out of five women over 60 are suffering from “subclinical hypothyroidism” (American Family Physician, Oct. 2005).

That makes thyroid disorders among the most common conditions affecting Americans. What accounts for this epidemic? One possibility is the widespread use of flame retardants in furniture.

How is it possible that chemicals in foam cushions could get into our bodies? After all, we do not eat our cushions. The experts don’t have good answers, but house dust is one possible culprit. The dust itself is not the problem, but chemicals carried on dust may be partly to blame. Americans have levels of PBDEs in their bodies that are 7 to 35 times higher than those in Europeans (Environmental Health Perspectives [EHP], May, 2008). Most European countries banned some PBDEs years ago. Americans, however, are still being exposed. When these chemicals get trapped in house dust, they can be easily transferred to skin and lungs.

Cats may be serving as the canaries in the coal mine. Veterinarians began noticing an epidemic of feline hyperthyroidism in the 1980s. This corresponds to the introduction of PBDEs. When cats groom themselves, they are exposed to chemicals in house dust. Recent research confirms that the hyperthyroid cats have high levels of PBDEs circulating in their bodies (EHP, Dec. 2007).

Young children crawling on the floor or carpet are also exposed to relatively high levels of house dust and PBDEs as well. Thyroid hormone imbalances during development may affect the brain.

Although other compounds are now being used in place of PBDEs, we don’t know how safe they are. There are also questions about how helpful they may be in saving lives from fires. Some experts suggest that they make smoke more toxic and thus pose an unexpected danger to fire fighters.


What can you do to reduce your exposure to flame retardants? First, if you have young children, you may want to reduce the amount of padded furniture in your home or pay a higher price for products that do not contain such chemicals. You can find more information about such furniture at: Second, clean your house frequently with a vacuum cleaner that contains a HEPA filter to remove toxic dust. And third, always wash your hands before handling any food!

We think it is essential for scientists to learn more about how flame retardants affect health. To read more about this research check out the article or the website.

We recently interviewed Arlene Blum, PhD, one of the authors of the study. It will air soon on our public radio show, The People’s Pharmacy. In the meantime, you can listen to an excerpt of Dr. Blum discussing her research on flame retardants by clicking on the blue arrow at the top of this page. And please stay tuned to The People’s Pharmacy radio show. Our complete one-hour interview with Dr. Blum is intriguing and will air in several weeks. You can sign up for the free podcast of our show so that you won’t miss her fascinating conversation. Here is a link to our podcasts. And while you are at it, you may want to alert a friend to our free email newsletter. Just point them to our website and tell them to put their email into the box provided.

Thanks for subscribing and opening our occasional People’s Pharmacy Alerts. We try hard to only send you information that we think is important. Please vote on this post to let us know if it was worthwhile and/or comment below. Many thanks.

Joe & Terry Graedon

The People’s Pharmacy

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  1. PudinTame

    We all know about the flame retardant that they put in our clothes, furniture, houses, cars, and workplace ;but, what about the flame retardant that they spray in the air on fires? What does that do to the environment? Is it the same material with the same chemicals that cause hormonal and thyroid problems?

  2. KO

    Absolutely! Very well said!

  3. cp

    I greatly appreciate these alerts. You said the Dr. Blum states maattresses are not treated but what about those foam toppers that are now popular? Also, someone raised car upholstery, does it have flame retardant in it? Thanks for all you do People’s Pharmacy!

  4. KatiD

    Amen. We all don’t have a clue as to the implications of what’s being perpetrated on us now such as the genetically-altered “superfish,” which could be the next DDT or asbestos or thalidomide. We can exercise due caution in how we live, but many things are foisted on us we have no control of. I think the excessive worry and flooding our cells with stress-induced cortisol is possibly more dangerous than just living modestly and prudently.

  5. KO

    I have purchased many books that I have heard about on Peoples Pharmacy pod casts, NPR, etc. over the years that once I started reading them I found that I wasn’t really interested in reading them, so off to the book shelves they would go. 1, 3, 5 or so years down the road I find a book on my book shelf and it is Exactly what I am looking for! This has happened so many times I have lost count.
    My point is that just because information doesn’t seem relevant, credible or important to you right now it may be just what you find yourself looking for in the future. So stay tuned and keep listening and reading, you never know when something from the past might help save your life/health or someone’s you Love.

  6. ebm

    Rkatrin,you live your life the way you want. MOST OF US appreciate to be informed of the dangers lurking around us and sift through is and apply as WE see fit. YOU don’t have to read it, there is an UNSUBSCRIBE button!
    You can see by the many naive questions people pose how very
    valuable this site is.
    You don’t have to read Alerts, keep in the dark!

  7. STEVE W.

    Joe and Terry, this is good information and I hope you continue to give us good info. However, this one is a complicated one that is not going to be resolved on an individual level. This has to have national government to somehow enact future protections of some kind. [Of course even then they would screw that up as has been recent governmental activities lately.]
    On the other hand, how many of us can afford to throw out much of our furniture away and buy more that cannot be checked about the contents? Joe and Terry, have you put yours in the trash? Probably not.
    By the way, we spend a lot of time in our cars in which the seating is stuffed. Do we need to replace that also? Yep, this is complicated.
    Again, thank you for all the good information you give to us.

  8. Don

    Is there any way we can tell about the contents of the sofas, beds and other stuffed furniture? Labels ? Manufacturers ?
    Where’s the EPA????

  9. JC

    I appreciate both sides of the presented comments. Accordingly I’m not going to panic and replace all my stuffed furniture, BUT I will be vacuuming, dusting, and washing my hands more often from now on. Thanks, Joe and Terry,
    for sharing your knowledge and your advice.

  10. Anonymous

    RE: Is your couch toxic? I would think mattresses would be even a bigger problem.
    PEOPLE’S PHARMACY RESPONSE: Mattresses are not treated with flame retardants, according to Dr. Arlene Blum.

  11. Sandra

    I, for one, appreciate the effort that the folks at People’s Pharmacy and other watchdog agencies put into keeping us informed of potential hazards. Being informed is crucial to protecting our health. For those who don’t appreciate the information, and choose instead to bury your heads in the sand, I suggest you stick to the mainstream media.

  12. nj

    It seems that Europe is always ahead of us. Thanks, Joe and Terry for keeping us informed.

  13. KO

    Remember DDT? So glad that was banned in the US in 1972! It’s not a matter of “we are all going to die” it’s a matter of living the best, healthiest life possible. And The Peoples Pharmacy is a hugh contributor to a healthy life.
    Why should so many people have health problems and need to take medications just so some company can sell their toxic products to furniture manufactures? Nuts to be concerned about the toxins that keep being dumped into our lives? I don’t think so!
    Some people stick their heads in the sand and just don’t want to know, I am not one of those people and I appreciate the researchers and The Peoples Pharmacy for keeping me informed and up to date.

  14. PKF

    Fascinating and important information. Thank you! Thyroid disease is a quiet life-changer, and this country is in a huge, but quiet, epidemic. Any theory that points the way to a possible cause and cure needs to be researched.
    I very much appreciate the suggestions on how to minimize the presence of tris in the home.

  15. LF

    These alerts are quite informative. Glad Joe and Terry are out there!
    Eventually the information sinks in to the general public, who eventually learn to make informed choices when purchasing goods and materials. Manufacturers will stop making toxic materials when informed people can make choices that are right for them and have the option to quit buying these kinds of goods. Initiate change with your own wallet! Legislators are often way too slow to follow – too many monetary rewards are reaped from supporting Big Pharma and Big Industry, and trying to corral this type of behavior in Washington is as difficult as herding cats. The CEOs, Senators and Representatives laugh all the way to the bank, at our expense.
    Yes, the basic idea of flame retardents was developed with good intentions and was meant to save lives, and should be viewed as such in the history books. But in the long term view, the “implementation” does not make any sense based on the massive collateral damage incurred to lives and the environment.
    These chemicals need to be phased out and other non-toxic solutions developed.
    Thank you, Joe and Terry. Keep the information coming!

  16. t morris

    This is the first time I’ve read that thyroid disorders might be caused by flame retardants in furniture, but I guess it can’t be discounted all together. I thought predisposition to thyroid disease was because of family history. I was diagnosed w Graves’ disease in the 70’s. My mother had underactive thyroid most of her life, and my daughter was diagnosed with Hoshimoto’s thyroiditis when she was a pre-teen.
    Our Golden Retriever was diagnosed with underactive thyroid before he died, and when my husband and I split up, he was diagnosed with underactive thyroid. I think we need to be in the medical journals!
    As far as I know, our furniture didn’t have flame retardants, but I don’t know that for sure. Can they be in the carpet?
    Anyway, I hardly think that flame retardants might have caused all of our thyroid disorders, especially the dog, since he was outside most of the time. I had two indoor cats, which have since died, and they didn’t have thyroid disorder. The two cats I now have don’t have thyroid problems (as far as I know).

  17. RAW

    How is leather furniture affected? Do the chemicals seep through leather furniture?
    PEOPLE’S PHARMACY RESPONSE: We don’t know but we will try to find out.

  18. Jeanne H.

    This may explain why my 34 year old daughter had thyroid cancer!

  19. Karen

    Heard once that the majority of people who die from smoking in bed, which is related to why we had to put flame retardants in everything that might catch fire, are drunk at the time. So we all give up cigarettes to prevent cancer, at the same time markedly reducing our risk of house fires, and then get a new exposure in the form of preventing a risk that’s not so big any more anyway. Except, perhaps, for those people who can’t live without inhaling some form of pollutant and therefore burn aromatic candles constantly.
    OTOH, if you’ve ever watched flame-retarded vs non-treated Christmas trees burn, you might decide to take your chances on the flame retardants…

  20. TAW

    One day we will learn that most environmental and health problems come from one source: plastics…i.e. fossil fuels. They are choking our oceans, our land, our water, and our air. The oil industry does not care as long as they have as much profit as possible no matter the coast to our planet and its people.

  21. Rkatrin

    Isn’t this kind of nuts? Now you have to remove most of your furniture from your house? Let’s face it we could all go around hysterical about the number of things that chip away at our health, I think the largest one is pesticides in all the food we eat, in the environment we live in, etc. etc. blah, blah, blah. Face it, we’re going to die, bottom line, and in spite of all the “alerts” we read we’re still living longer than we have in the past, there is no “perfect” world so let’s not go crazy about so many things we can’t control and try to live our lives in the present with as much peace and sanity without all our “watchdogs.” finding more things for us to worry about.

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