man with a heart attack receiving medical intervention, cardiac arrest, cardiac event, Vascepa

People who are hurting are caught between the proverbial rock and a hard place. Whether they’re suffering from a bad back or arthritis, there aren’t many medications that are effective. Now more bad news about ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib (Celebrex), meloxicam and other NSAIDs has millions worried. That’s because a new study confirms an increased risk for heart attacks.

NSAIDs and Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack):

The evidence has been building for years that NSAIDs are bad for the cardiovascular system. Epidemiological studies have suggested that such drugs increase the risk for heart attacks, strokes, congestive heart failure and death. Here is a link to an article we wrote several years ago documenting these problems.

Popular Pain Relievers Trigger Heart Attacks!

Despite prior research many health professionals and patients were reluctant to accept the bad news about ibuprofen, celecoxib, diclofenac, meloxicam, naproxen or other NSAIDs. There have been concerns about the quality of the studies. Some experts characterized the data as “imprecise” or “inconclusive.”

Now, Canadian and European researchers have just published an important article in the BMJ (May 9, 2017). The results reaffirm the risks of NSAIDs.

What They Did:

After reviewing 82 studies for inclusion in this meta-analysis they settled on eight that met their high standards. Over 400,000 subjects were part of this analysis. There were over 61,000 heart attacks in this group. Before we translate what they found we want you to read their words for yourself:

“Through its inclusion and exclusion criteria and the definition of exposures, this meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) aimed to emulate the design of a large, pragmatic randomised trial comparing the main non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used in the general population. By studying 61,460 myocardial infarction [heart attack] events in real world use of NSAIDs, we found that current use of a NSAID is associated with a significantly increased risk of acute myocardial infarction. This was observed for all traditional NSAIDs, including naproxen.”

Interpreting the Bad News About Ibuprofen & Other NSAIDS:

So, how bad was it? The researchers noted that “NSAIDs exhibited a rapid onset of risk for myocardial infarction in the first week of use.”

That challenges the thinking of many people who assumed that it would take months of daily use to trigger this effect. Doses of ibuprofen greater than 1200 mg per day demonstrated the risk between eight and 30 days. That is higher than the standard daily dose recommended on the label of drugs like Advil or Motrin IB. The directions for Advil Tablets read:

  • “adults and children 12 years and over: take 1 tablet every 4 to 6 hours while symptoms persist
  • “If pain or fever does not respond to 1 tablet, 2 tablets may be used.
  • “Do not exceed 6 tablets [1200 mg] in 24 hours, unless directed by a doctor.”

If someone were to take the maximal OTC ibuprofen dose he would be approaching the “high dose” considered a risk by the researchers. Many doctors prescribe substantially higher doses for people who have suffered an injury or are complaining about chronic pain.

Bad News About Ibuprofen Not Isolated:

The authors note that NSAIDs as a class appear to have negative cardiovascular consequences. (The exception is aspirin, which may reduce the risk for heart attacks.) The higher the dose the greater the danger.

The Risk in Relative Terms:

Here is what was uncovered in terms of relative risk for people who took different NSAIDs for a week or less:

  • Ibuprofen: a 48% increased risk of heart attack
  • Diclofenac (Voltaren): a 50% increased risk of heart attack
  • Naproxen (Aleve, diclofenac): a 53% increased risk of heart attack
  • Celecoxib (Celebrex): 24%

Absolute Risk vs. Relative Risk:

In fairness, it is important to note that relative risk is almost always a scary number. A 50% increase in the risk of heart attack seems huge. And yet the absolute risk of suffering a heart attack is actually quite small. That’s because relatively few people will experience a heart attack in the first place.

We understand the the distinction between absolute risk or absolute benefit can be confusing. The pharmaceutical industry has learned how to take advantage of this complexity. For example, the maker of Lipitor (atorvastatin) used to state that this cholesterol-lowering drug was valuable:

“In patients with multiple risk factors for heart disease, LIPITOR REDUCES RISK OF HEART ATTACK BY 36%*…”

That seems like an impressive number. Some people might assume that more than a third of patients on Lipitor could avoid a heart attack. But the asterisk in the ads told something quite different:

“That means in a large clinical study, 3 percent of patients taking a sugar pill or placebo had a heart attack compared to 2 percent of patients taking Lipitor.”

So there was roughly one fewer heart attack out of 100 people taking Lipitor. And yes, that was a 36% relative risk reduction.

The same thing is true about the absolute risk of experiencing a heart attack on ibuprofen or related NSAIDs. Even a 50% increased risk is still a relatively small absolute increased risk. Nevertheless, we do think this is a serious cardiovascular complication of NSAIDs.

Here is what the BMJ authors concluded:

“This patient level meta-analysis of acute myocardial infarction associated with NSAIDs involving 61 460 cases in 446 763 individuals is the largest investigation of its type, and its real world origin helps ensure that findings are broadly generalisable.

“In summary, compared with non-use of NSAIDs in the preceding year, we documented that current use of all studied NSAIDs, including naproxen, was associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction…Given that the onset of risk of acute myocardial infarction occurred in the first week and appeared greatest in the first month of treatment with higher doses, prescribers should consider weighing the risks and benefits of NSAIDs before instituting treatment, particularly for higher doses.”

Other NSAID Side Effects:

  • Digestive tract upset, stomach pain, nausea, bleeding ulcers, perforated ulcers
  • Heart attack, stroke, cardiac arrest
  • Irregular heart rhythms (A-fib)
  • Fluid retention, Heart failure
  • High blood pressure
  • Dizziness, unsteadiness, spaciness
  • Kidney damage, liver damage,
  • Skin rash and other dermatological reactions
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Asthma, breathing problems, allergic reactions
  • Changes in vision

People Love NSAIDs:

People in pain want relief, even if NSAIDs are not all that great at providing it. There just aren’t very many other options. Scary headlines about the opioid epidemic have scared physicians and patients away from such drugs, even when they may be helpful in situations of severe pain.

Here are some stories from readers to demonstrate the quandary:

Hephzivah in Nottinghamshire:

“My brother took diclofenac for 6 months. Previously he had a full check up including kidneys, which were fine. His doctor prescribed the drug with no advice. There was no warning relating to to kidneys on paperwork which came with it. After 6 months use his kidney function had reduced to 25%.”

Anonymous in California points out:

“I would like to see the risks expressed in a different way. For example, if my risk of dying of cardiac arrest is one in 100 if I don’t take ibuprofen But instead live with daily pain, and it goes up to two in 100 if I do take ibuprofen, then I will probably take ibuprofen to be pain free.”

Kate offers an interesting comment on OTC drugs:

“This is alarming to me because I, as many others do, assume that if it is sold OTC it must be harmless and while not waiting to take an Aleve for everything, took it fairly frequently for a headache, muscle ache or just having trouble sleeping.

“I had a medium stroke in November; the neurologists cannot find a definitive reason, after many tests. My eating is healthy, I exercise fairly regularly, blood pressure is very good, moderation in things… the scary part is that I don’t know how to prevent another one.
After reading this, I am wondering if the use an NSAID might have been a cause? I personally will stop taking it; the risk is too great.”

Alternatives for Arthritis:

People with arthritis must live with chronic pain. It rarely disappears in a week or two. Most patients will have to cope for the rest of their lives. Finding alternatives to NSAIDs can sometimes make a big difference in the quality of life.

We have written in depth about topical NSAIDs, home remedies like tart cherries, Knox Gelatin, pineapple, Certo and grape juice, and herbs such as Ashwagandha, boswelia, turmeric, ginger and stinging nettle. There is also acupuncture. To learn more, here is a link to this online resource in our store.

Share your own experience with NSAIDs below in the comment section. Have you found alternatives to NSAIDs that ease inflammation or pain? Share your story with others and please vote on the article at the top of the page if you found any of this information helpful.

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  1. Rich S.

    I have taken ibuprofen for over 12 years since my stroke. I take about 1600mgs/day. I have not had any significant medical problems from this drug. My prescription is through the V.A. with no copay, which allows me to continue taking this drug. I would warn others to be aware of your body for the first 30 days after beginning the drug to ensure you do not have any side effects.

  2. Driven Mad with Pain Killers

    Everytime we turn to medicine, we must assess risk. Is the risk to the length of our lives lower if we do not take the drug, or is the risk lower if we do take the drug? When pain is severe, assessing risk is very difficult, if not impossible.

    I take nsaids to manage pain. Is this pain I can live with, or will the influence of the pain in my life be too great to endure, so the risk of taking the drug appears to be less? I often feel without the tools to properly assess this. I have had doctors recommend daily doses of nsaids and had doctors throwing anti reflux drugs at me in fear of the outcomes of such recommendations. Our doctors need to know more to help us with finding products with lower risk outcomes.

    I sense that our pharmaceutical companies have not tested the products sufficiently, just like all of these wild alternative products that are being discussed. Anecdotes do not make for reliable information. Doctors rely on pharmaceutical companies for information. What is forthcoming?

    Can the risks of taking these drugs be addressed and decreased by the pharmaceutical companies? Will they communicate about the impacts of their products like cigarette companies have had to?

    It appears to me that research needs to happen quickly to determine if there is an element in nsaids that can be isolated to help with pain, but separated from elements within the current drug formulations that produce high risk side effects.

    We are poorly served if we do not expect more from pharmaceutical companies. Produce products that address our pain needs without subjecting us to shorter life expectancies, or high risk complications, or be forced to stop producing such drugs. Provide specific information to doctors and consumers regarding the degree of risk involved in taking the products you produce, or be forced to stop producing such drugs.
    End of story.

  3. William F. W.

    When I read this article I stopped my naproxen, 500mg twice a day for osteoarthritis. The great news is that my pain did not return. Now I know that that doesn’t heal itself, so I must be getting relief from one or more of the following, which I take very day:

    alpha lipoic acid, boswellia and curcumin, turmeric, ashwaganda, benfotiamine, B6, B12, optimized folate, sour cherry concentrate (only occasionally), magnesium, metformin, K2, D3, fish oil

    This is the very first absolute proof of effectiveness that I have had for any of my meds.

  4. Marilyn

    I’ve been taking a teaspoon of gin-soaked raisins followed by about 6 oz of tart cherry juice every evening (3 tablespoons of concentrate from Vitacost in water). Night-time hip pain was diminished with the raisins and completely vanquished with the addition of the tart cherry juice. Thank you Peoples’ Pharmacy, I’m extremely grateful.

  5. gini

    Where do we find I tried “homeopathy – homeopathic ruta and rhus tox”?

  6. Michele
    Florence, Co

    I think the information that these drugs are dangerous is or should be fairly common knowledge.
    Marijuana salve is the number one pain reliever, use the CBD kinds that don’t result in feeling “high” I have many achy places and severe disk problems in my back, the salve makes my down time pain free.
    I can’t dig ditches anymore without pain but when I am done working the salve lets me relax and enjoy life.
    And I do think morphine and those other opiod drugs were used for thousands of years by millions of people with an unfortunate few who became so enamored of the feelings that they became addicted.
    That some people become mentally addicted is unfortunate but the health benefits and lack of dangerous side effects, or no more dangerous than refined sugar, tobacco, alcohol or other common addictive substances, makes the legalization of all pain relievers something that should be discussed at the highest levels.
    A new study from the public insurance agencies, Medicare/medicaide, show a 16% reduction in prescription drug costs for pain management and anxiety management in those States that have allowed medical marijuana! Sixteen percent, that’s a LOT of money.
    I do suggest that anyone taking opiod currently request plain oxycodone so that you can take what you want. I take aspirin during the day and something like naprosyn at night because it will last through the night.
    I rarely take opiod any longer because they aren’t as effective as the Mary Jane salve. The Mary Jane products are always the same some other manufacturers are inconsistent with potency and effect.
    I have suffered with pain from rhuematoid arthritis, frlibromyalgia, diverticulitis and endometriosis my entire life. It has affected my abilities to not only hold down a job but also my abilities to care for my home, my pets and my loved ones.
    I know of what I speak.
    Michele R
    Florence, CO

  7. Michele Marie

    Medical marijuana eaten, inhaled and applied external as a salve is effective for pain relief. For some people even federally legal industrial hemp CBD’s reduce inflammatory pain will no THC and no known side effects.
    Fear of the unknown, unexamined faith in authority, and pharmaceutical corporate greed harm millions each day.

  8. Jean
    Johns Island, S. C.

    Rimadyl and similar NSAIDS have been killing our dogs for 20 years. Not nearly enough has been done to warn dog owners about this carnage.

  9. Brenda P

    I found a solution for elimination of my pain. But first, here is a little background. Diagnosed with degenerative spine disease, fibromyalgia and multiple food intolerances, I was advised to take Aleve, Advil or ibuprofen, which I used feely for 20 years.

    Then my heat murmur grew into a chronic infection in the lining of my heart along with congestive heart failure, all due to these meds, according to my heart specialist. Then I was put on Tramadol, which I still take in limited amounts. This morning I awoke with very little pain, no pills needed. Its the second time this week. I have not had pain free mornings in 10 years.

    After years of research I developed the following recipe. I have used as breakfast for the past month and not only have less pain but lost weight, feel full and have energy. The other tip is totally avoid inflammatory foods: starch, dairy, red meats, carbs. Now here’s is my recipe:
    16 Oz bone broth heated to near boiling. Add a squeezed half lemon, 1 very large tablespoon grassfed (must) Ghee, 1 tablespoon virgin coconut oil, squeeze of Bragg’s Amino Acids (to taste), and seasonings of choice. I use Fiesta Bolner’s Complete. You may also add lettuce (wilted is fine), onion or chives, thinly sliced or diced crookneck or zuchinni squash. If you have fatigue problems, add powdered Rhodiola with 1% salidrocides, 1/8 tsp.

  10. Elizabeth

    I find these studies quite discouraging !! I have arthritis and spinal stenosis, which result in frequent headaches. I drink sour cherry juice every day and take turmeric every day. I have had good results with acupuncture, but it is really not practical to have an acupuncture treatment every day! It seems that those of us with chronic pain are just stuck–the pain is a problem, NSAID’s are bad for my heart, and Tylenol is less effective AND it is bad for my liver. . . .

  11. ARLENE
    Darlington, South Carolina

    I have scoliosis, spinal stenosis, rotator cuff pain, hiatal hernia acid reflux and I’m a breast cancer survivor. Gastroenterologist prescribed pantoprazole then Dexilant but I couldn’t tolerate them. After your ‘leaky gut’ program I began taking an over the counter probiotic w prebiotic and it seems to be helping acid problem.

    For pain, I go to chiropractor and on a bad day I take 3 Tylenol in 24 hrs. Because Tylenol doesn’t harm stomach. Is this true and will Tylenol cause heart and stroke issues? Thank you,

    • PJ
      Rock Hill SC

      As far as the leaky gut, I can highly recommend going to and learn about the absolute best form of probiotics in the world. When my wife started taking 10 oz of kefir daily she was completely cured of IBS within the first week and it has not returned.

  12. Terry

    But what about low doses? I have found 1 Ibuprofen tablet (200 mg) helps my enlarged prostate or bladder issues at night and I can sleep longer w/o interruption. Is this still harmful?

  13. Torrence
    Boardman, Ohio

    Well, as usual, what we are told to take for decades, is now warned it will kill us. The one problem is if so many people are being killed why haven’t they taken ALL of these pills off the market???????? There can only be 2 answers. One is they don’t know what they are talking about, or two there is to much money being made in the sale of these products, and they don’t really care what happens to us, or they WOULD take them off the market. If you have a better answer, be my guest!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • Joe Graedon

      Hi Torrence,

      Great questions. Several years ago I asked a very high executive at the FDA why they had not discovered the Vioxx connection to heart attacks. In a moment of surprising candor he stated that heart attacks were so common that the FDA was unable to detect a connection to Vioxx. In other words, common side effects that were not discovered during the clinical trials are very hard to detect once a drug is on the market. No one thinks to ask the question or even look for a connection.

      Once a signal was detected and researchers started looking, they discovered that the connection did indeed appear real. The more studies they did, the firmer the relationship was between Vioxx (rofecoxib) and cardiovascular complications.

      He admitted that rare or unusual side effects are much easier to detect. If a patient develops kidney failure (a relatively rare event) within several months of taking high-dose NSAIDs, doctors are more likely to report that to the FDA. If someone has a heart attack (a relatively common event), it just seems like bad luck or bad genes and it doesn’t get reported.

      I hope that answers your question.


  14. J. David Auner
    Springfield, MO, USA

    The studies in 1970 to 1990 did not show Americans clotting – even the early Vioxx studies, despite the obvious Cox 2 mechanism, did not show heart attacks etc. Later years into the insulin resistance/inflammation/obesity years the clots were numerous especially in people with another clot risk like smoking, pregnancy and delivery, surgery. Whether BPA or frankenfats, both introduced in 1985 by our dear Ronnie’s personal decisions, caused the metabolic changes will eventually be studied but probably not in the US.

    What patients with arthritis, degenerative spine disease etc need is to keep going without opiates. Let’s have some time for NSAID vs Aspirin vs Tylenol vs herbs vs nutriceuticals – I use Aspirin or I can’t function but each approach has a failure rate and side effects which patients need to hear about. Thanks for your consideration.

  15. Christine

    I’m in my sixties and and had increasing neck, back, hip and leg pain and stiffness. Pain affected my sleep, could hardly walk even with a walking stick, and couldn’t sit or stand for very long because of pain. I cannot tolerate NSAIDS and I refused to take cortisone because of my bones. I tried homeopathy – homeopathic ruta and rhus tox – and I am totally pain free and no stiffness – it’s been three months now and it looks like my miraculous recovery is permanent. My body feels twenty years younger. I urge others to try homeopathy.

  16. Gretchen

    I hear ads on the radio for Relief Factor for joint pain. Expensive. Supposedly all natural. Any truth that it works?

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