logoThe People's Perspective on Medicine

Is Your OTC Pain Reliever Deadly?

People should be warned about the potentially lethal side effects of OTC NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and naproxen.
Is Your OTC Pain Reliever Deadly?

Is death an acceptable side effect for over-the-counter medicines?

Most people assume that non-prescription drugs are super safe, although nearly everyone knows that prescription medications frequently come with a long list of scary side effects.

TV Ads for Prescription Drugs

It’s impossible to avoid prescription drug commercials on TV. Viewers are urged to ask their doctors for medications to treat arthritis, gout, diabetes, ED (erectile dysfunction), COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and depression.

What is most astonishing about these ads is that not infrequently we are told that the featured medicine can cause really serious adverse reactions such as heart attacks, strokes, cancer or even death. People seem to have become desensitized to such warnings when it comes to prescription products.

What About OTC Medicines?

OTC drugs don’t carry such frightening alerts, so perhaps consumers believe they are perfectly safe. After all, the FDA is not supposed to allow any drug that has “toxicity” or the “potentiality for harmful effect” to be sold without prescription (Amendment to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 1951).

One wonders whether the FDA considers death a harmful effect. If so, the agency should reconsider its approval of NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) as over-the-counter pain relievers.

How Risky Are OTC NSAIDs?

Gastrointestinal Side Effects

When ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB) was first allowed over the counter in 1984, gastroenterologists worried about life-threatening complications such as bleeding or perforated ulcers. The FDA decided that the overall benefits outweighed these concerns and went on to approve OTC status for naproxen (Aleve).

Cardiovascular Side Effects

Over the last decade, however, we have learned that NSAIDs in general (including drugs such as diclofenac, meloxicam and piroxicam as well as ibuprofen and naproxen) are linked to a higher risk of heart attack, stroke and death from cardiovascular causes (JAMA, Oct. 4, 2006).

Blood Clots in Veins

Now researchers have discovered that NSAIDs also increase the risk of blood clots in the veins, a serious complication that can lead to life threatening blood clots in the lungs (Rheumatology, Sept. 24, 2014).

Readers have had their own terrifying experiences with these medicines. Dixie wrote:

“Four years ago I was admitted to the hospital with blood clots in my lungs. I had been taking naproxen for pain for several years. My doctor could not explain why I had this emergency.

“I was in the hospital for nearly a week and had to give myself injections of the anticoagulant heparin for another week. I was on oxygen for six weeks following this terrible scare. Please tell people about the side effects of NSAIDs. I nearly lost my life.”

Another reader shared her experience:

“I’ve taken NASIDS for years. Last June, I had bleeding ulcers and was admitted to intensive care for five days. I lost a lot of blood and had to have numerous transfusions.”

The FDA has not done a good enough job warning consumers about the dangers of OTC drugs. Because they are available in convenience stores, supermarkets and other non-pharmacy outlets, there is no supervision.


In other countries, this dilemma is solved by having a category of drugs available without prescription, but only with a pharmacist’s advice. Perhaps it is time for the FDA to consider a “behind-the-counter” category for drugs with a “potentiality for harmful effect.”

Rate this article
4.4- 24 ratings
About the Author
Joe Graedon is a pharmacologist who has dedicated his career to making drug information understandable to consumers. His best-selling book, The People’s Pharmacy, was published in 1976 and led to a syndicated newspaper column, syndicated public radio show and web site. In 2006, Long Island University awarded him an honorary doctorate as “one of the country's leading drug experts for the consumer.” .
Get the latest health news right in your inbox

Join our daily email newsletter with breaking health news, prescription drug information, home remedies AND you'll get a copy of our brand new full-length health guide — for FREE!

Screenshots of The People's Pharmacy website on mobile devices of various sizes
Join over 150,000 Subscribers at The People's Pharmacy

We're empowering you to make wise decisions about your own health, by providing you with essential health information about both medical and alternative treatment options.