Humans, like most other animals, have daily rhythms. When these are disrupted by shift work or jet lag, people may feel out of sorts, fatigued or even vulnerable to illness. Are there ways to get sleep back on track?
Can You Use Melatonin for Jet Lag?
Q. I would like some information on using melatonin as a sleeping aid. Will it work for people traveling long distances? Are there any side effects I should know about? I am traveling to Europe this summer and I’m concerned about jet lag.
A. Melatonin has been used for the jet lag that can occur when a person travels over several time zones (Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, Jan-Mar. 2008). Occasionally people taking melatonin will develop a skin reaction (“fixed drug eruption”). This should be a signal not to take it again. People on oral anticoagulants and those with epilepsy should take melatonin only under their doctors’ supervision (BMJ Clinical Evidence, April 29, 2014).
Melatonin seems to be otherwise safe for short-term use, such as for jet lag (Clinical Drug Investigation, March 2016). Some people may report dizziness, nausea, headache or sleepiness.
Melatonin for Jet Lag, Not for Everyday Insomnia:
Longer-term use of melatonin hasn’t been well studied, and there may be additional side effects. As a result, we don’t recommend melatonin as a sleep aid every night.
Q. I take zolpidem for insomnia. It helps me fall asleep but not stay asleep, and it gives me a dry mouth.
My doctor suggested I try melatonin instead to prolong the time I stay asleep. Does that sound reasonable?
A. The studies on melatonin are mixed. A recent double-blind French study found no benefit (BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, June 22, 2010). It appears to be more useful for jet lag (Current Treatment Options in Neurology, Sept., 2010).
We are sending you our Guide to Getting a Good Night’s Sleep for more information on using melatonin, magnesium and light against insomnia, as well as details on drugs like zolpidem, Sonata and Rozerem.
The FDA approved an old drug, doxepin, in a new low-dose long-acting formulation to help people stay asleep. Initial reports are favorable (Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapeutics, July 2009). You and your doctor may wish to discuss this option, brand-named Silenor, but be forewarned: the drug may be expensive. Side effects may include drowsiness, dizziness, stuffy nose and nausea.