The People's Perspective on Medicine

Is Whole Fat Dairy (Milk, Cheese and Yogurt) Good for the Heart?

Do you buy low-fat or no-fat yogurt? Why? Do you like the taste or do you fear the saturated fat in whole fat dairy products? A new study says dairy products are good for the cardiovascular system.

Cardiologists have been admonishing Americans to avoid saturated fat in the diet. Whole fat dairy products have been especially vilified. That is why skim milk, margarine and low-fat yogurt have become so popular over the last few decades. Admit it, if you put cream in your coffee, don’t you feel just a wee bit guilty? And if you buy full-fat ice cream doesn’t it seem as if you are committing a sin? Surprisingly, though, The data to support restricting whole fat dairy products has been conflicting and confusing. Now a new study suggests that telling people to avoid dairy products might have been mistaken (Lancet, Sept. 11, 2018).

Whole Fat Dairy Intake and Heart Disease

It has long been assumed that saturated fat was the culprit underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart attacks and premature death. Sat-fat was thought to raise LDL cholesterol which would in turn clog coronary arteries. But this lipid theory of heart disease doesn’t work as well as the advocates would like to believe. More about that in a moment.

PURE to the Rescue:

A large multinational epidemiological study involving more than 136,000 people challenges the old assumptions about whole fat dairy products. This research is called the PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology) study. Investigators recruited volunteers from 21 countries in five continents.

Over 9 years there were more than 10,000 heart attacks or deaths in this population. People who reported consuming at least two servings of dairy products daily were less likely to suffer a cardiovascular event or die during the study. Some people ate only full-fat dairy products. If they had three servings a day, their chance of dying during the study was lower than people who had only half a serving daily.

The researchers noted that a higher intake of total dairy (more than two servings daily) compared to no dairy intake was associated with:

  • Less total mortality
  • Less non-cardiovascular mortality
  • Less cardiovascular mortality
  • Less major cardiovascular disease
  • Fewer strokes

The researchers offered the following implication of the PURE study:

“Dairy consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality and major cardiovascular disease events in a diverse multinational cohort.”

The authors of this study pointed out that:

“…a meta-analysis of cohort studies suggested a lower risk of hypertension with increasing milk consumption, with a neutral effect on cardiovascular disease.” (refs: Hypertension, Nov. 2012; Circulation, Jan. 12, 2016).

They acknowledge that most dietary guidelines restrict whole fat dairy products on the grounds that this approach should reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. They hasten to add:

“However, dairy products and dairy fat also contain potentially beneficial compounds— including specific aminoacids, medium-chain and odd-chain saturated fats, milk fat globule phospholipids, unsaturated and branched-chain fats, natural trans fats, vitamin K1 and K2, and calcium—and can contain probiotics, many of which might also affect health outcomes.”

The Conclusions in Their Own Words:

“In this large, multinational, prospective cohort study involving participants from 21 countries in 5 continents, we found inverse associations between total dairy consumption and mortality or major cardiovascular disease events. The risk of stroke was markedly lower with higher consumption of dairy.”

“Our study (unpublished data) and others have shown a lower blood pressure with higher consumption of dairy and this effect might explain the lower risks of strokes that we have observed. Furthermore, there was no impact on LDL cholesterol but a lower triglyceride blood concentration with higher dairy consumption, and this finding might explain the non-significant and lower risk of myocardial infarction observed in this study.”

Whole Fat Dairy Is Not the Enemy:

Did you catch the statement that consumption of dairy foods did not impact LDL cholesterol? That should have come as a major shock. For decades you have been told that the saturated fat in whole fat dairy products would raise your LDL cholesterol and lead to terrible cardiovascular consequences. In the PURE study, however, dairy consumption didn’t  impact LDL cholesterol and actually led to lower triglyceride levels.

This is not the first time that the demonization of saturated fat has fallen flat. Here is an article you may find compelling that provides a broad perspective on saturated fat and heart disease. It was based on an article in the British Journal of Sports Medicine (April 25, 2017) titled “Saturated Fat Does Not Clog the Arteries.” Here is a link:

What do you think about whole-fat dairy products? Share your thoughts in the comment section below.

The Lancet, Sep. 11, 2018

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About the Author
Joe Graedon is a pharmacologist who has dedicated his career to making drug information understandable to consumers. His best-selling book, The People’s Pharmacy, was published in 1976 and led to a syndicated newspaper column, syndicated public radio show and web site. In 2006, Long Island University awarded him an honorary doctorate as “one of the country's leading drug experts for the consumer.” .
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If you Google PURE study crticism, you will find that the conclusions are not that solid.

The international PURE study included people who had marginal protein and calorie status. Full fat dairy would benefit those people. Most of your readers have access to abundant protein and calories. It is not clear that they would benefit from consuming more whole fat dairy. There are healthy, long lived people, who do not consume dairy products.

Saturated fat has been implicated in fatty liver and dementia.

The research in the unique properties of dairy fat is not yet ready to be used for dietary recommendations.

I found this summary of expert analyses most helpful: (google for) “expert reaction to study looking at dairy consumption, cardiovascular disease and death”.

Since this a “bet your life” proposition, I’ll go with the moderate path that these experts tended toward: lower-fat dairy, not full (or – I’m assuming here – zero) fat, until better evidence becomes available.

Unfortunately, this means less butter: (“The findings from PURE support the current evidence that yoghurt (a fermented dairy product) and milk has a beneficial effect, whilst butter (non-fermented dairy) showed a non-significant trend for a negative impact on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes.”)

When I asked about “chemicals” being added to low-fat and no-fat dairy — I was really looking for answers about milk, cheese, and plain yogurt, because that’s the dairy I eat. I skip yogurt with flavors and fruit, and I skip ice cream.

To those who talk about “chemicals” being added to low-fat and no-fat dairy — What ‘chemicals are added? Do they appear on labels? Someone mentioned sugar. Is there anything else?

For summaries of studies such as this, it would be helpful to include who funded the study. It is relevant information and I am willing to bet the majority of us don’t click the link to the original study. Thanks!

The dairy products sold are not fresh or wholesome, unless directly from a farm. I think it is wise to practice moderation, but milk is another processed dietary product. I would be misleading to call this and other dairy products food.

I believe it was about 1970 when Adelle Davis wrote her books on nutrition. In at least one she blamed the Hydrogenation industry that turned oils into hard fats by bubbling hydrogen through the oil at high temperature thus replacing the oxygen (or some such). Naturally, she claimed margarine was a bad thing. As was Crisco, lard, and hydrogenated peanut butter.
Now the (medical researchers?) use the word “Saturated Fats” and claim margarine is now good for us.
Adele Davis was more believable.

We pasteurize milk to kill really bad stuff like undulant fever. Really important. No one will ever convince me that “certified raw milk” has a doctor checking each cow each day.

Full fat tastes horrible.

I agree with this article and I do think the difference has something to do with the added chemicals and other processes they use to make “lo-fat” and “no-fat” dairy products taste good. These things may well cancel out any benefits from such products.

I am skeptical about the outcome of the PURE study. Before my diet was whole food plant-based, I had enlarged varicose veins in my right leg. When I stopped dairy and eggs the varicose veins disappeared. Milk and all milk products are for baby cows and not humans. What about the bovine growth hormone that is in milk products?

By the way, I am 81 and do not take any medication. I had a catheter ablation procedure in August of 2017, and I am a-fib free, and I do NOT take blood thinners as my veins and arteries are not full of fat, grease, and cholesterol from meat, and dairy.

My doctor said I’d have less arthritis pain in my joints if I cut down on dairy products, and said they (along with sugar) caused inflammation. All this is so confusing. I’ve been cutting back on sugars (other than that in fruit and an occasional spoonful of honey), and I use some low fat dairy cottage cheese, But I eat full-fat cheeses each day as well. I eat ice cream and froze yogurt. So I eat a mixture of the two. I tried going without much dairy and didn’t notice any change in arthritic pain. But I did notice that less sugar and also less carbs means that my arthritis is less painful. Not very scientific, is it? But so far I’m doing okay.

Carol, you might want to try taking Hyaluronic Acid. Since starting it (3 times a day), I’ve been able to quit using my cane and feel very little pain from my hip arthritis

Digestive enzymes are destroyed by the pasteurizing of milk. Due to homogenization, an enzyme has been found in coronary artery plaque. Fat aids in the digestion of protein in meat, eggs, fish, whole milk. Raw milk might be better, but not safe we are told. Wonder what the heart disease statistics are of the Scandinavian countries that consume much dairy. The calf drinks whole, raw milk from mama cow. It survives as long as mama cow is healthy. That milk was meant for the calf, not us. Do we drink the milk of other animals? There are other factors that also contribute to heart disease such as smoking, stress, heredity, depression, hypothyroidism, etc. For years, I drank whole milk, cheese, yogurt, etc
Also, low thyroid. At 82, I have coronary blockage, Might be due to heredity from
dad’s side of family. All food for thought.

I have been drinking whole raw milk for seven years. I consume a half gallon each week which is about how long it stays fresh (unless I make yogurt, which I do w/o raising the milk above 118 degrees). I am about the healthiest person I know. I am mostly of Norwegian descent which I like to believe is why I tolerate milk and love it so much.

I checked 2 containers of milk (whole and skim) for their sugar content. There is MORE SUGAR in skim milk than in whole milk. In addition to whole milk having more fat, it is healthier because it has LESS sugar.

Which leads to questions for those of us who are lactose intolerant. How can we get the same benefits without dairy?

I buy lactose free milk and take lactase enzyme with other dairy.

I am lactose intolerant. I can’t drink milk but I can eat home made yogurt.

Yogurt doesn’t have a lot of lactose in it. When I was first diagnosed with lactose intolerance my doctor gave me a list of foods that have lactose in them and those that don’t. I eat yogurt at least once a day, and I don’t have a problem. I actually feel better after eating the yogurt. It has a calming effect on the stomach. Aged cheeses don’t have a lot of lactose either. I was told that hot dogs have lactose in them. I don’t have a problem with goat cheese either. I think goat’s milk has less lactose in it as well. I was drinking the nut milks, but most of them have an ingredient in them that’s all organic, but is used to cause inflammation in mice when they did studies. That was very confusing. I don’t remember the name of the ingredient. Yogurt and aged cheeses have less lactose in it because of the way they are processed. I found whole milk yogurt again. It’s been years. Usually when something is made low fat they add more sugar to make up for the lack of taste.

I am dairy intolerant. Lactose free milk or tablets do not help me at all to eat or drink dairy. Now what?

I don’t drink a lot of milk, but until a year ago, it was all low-fat from organic brands. Now I buy grass-fed local organic raw milk, skim about 7/8 of the cream off the top and use that to make butter. I’ve also switched from sour cream to organic (full fat) Greek yogurt. My gut’s happier, and I like the taste a lot better. I’ve not seen any health issues, and I’m 70.

My husband and I were ‘low fat’ geeks. I couldn’t lose weight. He was a cyclist and raced with a 6% body fat, yet had high cholesterol. My cholesterol was high. I began reading and hearing the reasons behind the ‘low fat’ craziness. We tossed the low fat with its added real & fake sugars, added whole dairy to our life. Butter & cream is in our diets now. I’ve lost mega weight & for both of us our cholesterol is down. True, it isn’t simply removing the ‘low fat’ It’s removal of all the craziness.

I am not surprised by these findings. I recently began a ketogenic diet and my cholestorol numbers went down, my energy has increased, and I have lost the stubborn pounds that I could never shed. Full-fat yogurt, cheese, etc are now a part of my daily diet. My cholesterol levels were always high, around 240, before I tried the keto diet, and have dropped to 203 after 2 months. When my cholesterol was high, my doctor tried to persuade me to take statins, which I refused. A recent CT scan revealed not a stitch of calcium in my arteries or aorta, at the age of 63. So much for high cholesterol causing “clogged arteries”. According to research I have come across, the low-fat craze began with the medical opinion of President Eisenhower’s physician, who, after the president had a major heart attack, suggested it was a result of a high fat diet. What wasn’t taken into account was that Eisenhower smoked 3 to 4 packs of cigarettes a day! This doctor’s advice became the mantra of physicians everywhere and led to a plethora of low- or no-fat products flooding the market. Dr. Michael DeBakey, a highly renowned heart surgeon was a cheese lover. He insisted that high fat dairy is not the culprit for heart disease; it’s inflammation, caused by sugar, smoking, stress, alcohol, etc. He stated that the average cholesterol level of his patients with severe heart disease was well below 200. (Dr. DeBakey lived to the age of 99!) Of course everyone’s body chemistry is different and there are no guarantees. But you certainly may be able to enjoy full fat dairy…it’s delicious! You may even see an improvement in your health, weight and energy levels.

I drink skim milk with dinner at least 4-5 nights per week. I drink skim because I prefer the taste over 1-2%. However, I do eat real cheese and butter, and occasionally real ice cream, because I don’t like the chemicals added to the lower fat versions of those foods. I would rather have smaller amounts of the real thing. And my cholesterol is right where it should be.

Everything in moderation is my mantra.

All dairy products have lactose (sugar) in them and not having the fat from whole milk to slow down the absorption of those sugars is probably the biggest cause of so many people getting overweight and getting type 2 diabetes. I am 80 years old and only eat whole milk products while a friend of mine only eats low fat dairy and he can not seem to loose weight. Oh, yes, I am 6 feet tall and an ice cream addict and weigh under 180 pounds. The fat slows down the absorption of the sugar so is better for us to eat what nature made for us instead of processed dairy (like taking the fat out).

Haven’t there been some measurable benefits from a lessened consumption of dairy products in a given or studied population? And I’m curious as to why this study (PURE) was done in the first place. The dairy industry is desperate to reverse the use of substitute products. Even going so far as proposing that the term “milk” cannot be used to describe anything other than animal product. Funding of this study is buried deep in the list of funding sources. The truth will eventually be revealed.

I agree with Ronald from Virginia.

I’m a healthy & active 79 y/o male with a good BMI. I eat some meat, plenty of vegs & fruit, and use only whole fat dairy products & eat ice cream daily. I consume less than half the salt recommended and half the allowed sugar. Consume no sugary drinks/juices. Drink about 50 oz tap water daily. Wine with dinner. Cholesterol: Total 181, HDL 69 & LDL 96.

It was only when I started dieting (no fats/low fats) that my cholesterol levels/triglyceride levels went up. For years. Last annual check-up, they were both significantly down. The only difference: I went back to eating full-fat cheeses, butter, etc. “Everything in moderation” – period.

The W.I.C. program in North Carolina provides free milk, cheese, eggs, cereal and juice to pregnant women and children 1-5 years old with income eligibility and health reasons Two years ago they switched to skim or 1 percent milk to combat the “obesity epidemic.” The government obviously wants to limit the absorption of vitamin D in these populations by forcing them to use skim milk. It is amazing how those in power can affect the health of so many. Doctors no longer check vitamin D levels in children as many insurance policies do not cover this. Had to try to provide accurate information to the clients I saw, but they are confused with soo much conflicting information on healthy eating.

I have been told many times that
milk (any kind = BAD for you) Milk is for children.
I have been drinking and eating whole milk, nonfat milk, whipped cream and butter for all of my life.
Have not had any repercussions.
Eat healthy foods, excercise (at least one hour a day and stretch)
Avocado oil or walnut oil.
Researched continually.

When my cholesterol started to climb when I was in my 60’s, my dr. put me statins which ultimately caused painful muscle cramps. After reading the book by Nina Teicholz “The Big Fat Surprise” and learned that the low-fat diet craze was sponsored by food processing companies for the most part, I stopped purchasing low fat and for the past several years have been eating only whole fat dairy products, and the use of statins was stopped. My total cholesterol ratios are excellent, and my total cholesterol is 155, a huge drop.

I like the comment from the 84-year-old who says he has decided he doesn’t care to live to be 100, so he will enjoy all the whole fat dairy products he cares to and enjoy the remainder of his life. I second the motion! Of course, people who know they have problems with dairy products will benefit from acting accordingly. Otherwise, why not enjoy?

There are lots of reasons (like antibiotics, hormones, industrial processing, etc.) for adults to limit their intake of industrial whole milk but the fat isn’t one of them.

A gal in my water aerobics class is on the keto diet (high fat consumption). In three months she has lost fifty pounds. She has had her blood work done and her triglycerides, cholesterol, etc. have improved. It is hard to get my mind around, but it is happening before my eyes.

Bottom line, so many food rules have been overturned and disproved that I pretty much ignore what the health community has to say about foods now.

I eat butter, hard cheeses, sour cream, Ben & Jerry’s, etc. I cannot drink milk or fresh milk products. I’m 68 and have always had butter. I think Mary’s response was a knee-jerk reaction without exploring all the studies. You would think that if the drug companies were involved, they would be in favor of “milk and milk products are bad for you” so they could sell more drugs. My cholesterol is just fine, thank you, and so is my blood pressure. Given that so many entities were involved in this study, I think it would be exceptionally difficult to place blame on one. Sugar is a problem, and so is lifestyle and exposure to chemicals, bad water and bad air. The study sounds large and even-handed to me, and I do when confused go to the Cochrane website. As my mother at 94 says repeatedly, “Moderation in all things”. Too many people believe what they read without verifying facts. ‘Nuf said.

My cholesterol fell SEVENTY points in three weeks when I switched to a low-fat, vegan diet with no dairy, Enough said, I believe the study could have been funded by Big Dairy,

I stopped bloating and lost weight when I stopped eating dairy for 2 weeks at my doctor’s suggestion.
Dairy products I now know don’t agree with me. Almond milk works for me and lots of nuts for snacks.

I think that statins are a source of large sums of money for the pharmaceutical industry, that butter, whole milk, and eggs are good for me, and that, at my age of 76, I am through with worrying about the subject. I have celiac disease and am on a gluten-free diet which I enjoy. I am a bit lactose intolerant; so, I enjoy milk in moderation but some cheese, butter and eggs are very much part of my diet. I never bought into the Framingham study and the medical profession’s fixation on dietary cholesterol.

Nor do I pay much attention to all of the “studies” that vilify sugar, coffee, salt, etc. I have a friend who fell for all of those and stopped eating salt, sugar, and having coffee daily. She is a very unhappy person. I don’t go overboard on any food or condiment, but I see no reason to stop enjoying good food. Herbs add flavor, but a certain amount of salt is essential. Moderation is still the best answer.

Medical doctors often know very little about nutrition. Kathleen is right about Vitamin D. It is a fat-soluble vitamin. Rachel

I wonder if the results of this study help explain the so called French paradox? The French eat full fat dairy and have among the lowest heart attack and stroke rates in the western world. I lived in France as a teenager and became a cheese lover. I still eat some almost every day, though I try to keep the amount reasonable because of the calories. I’ll consume cheese instead of meat, so the calories balance out. Based on my observations and reading many articles over the years, eating full fat dairy IN MODERATION, as part of an otherwise healthy and balanced diet, will not harm people. Just don’t overindulge.

You might want to read Colin Campbell’s book:
“The China Study” (available on Amazon) before increasing the quantity of animal food in your diet.

Cow milk is for baby cows! Humans get teeth and they no longer require milk. Doctors long held this to be true. Now the milk lobby is spending money on “studies’ to say milk is healthy. The milk cartel is worried because so many people shun cow milk now and drink almond, soy, cashew, etc. instead of cow milk. See how the shelf space is shrinking for cow milk and being edged out by almond, soy, cashew, coconut drink!
It is known by doctors that women who drink the most milk have the osteoporosis. Japanese women are usually thin and look as though they might have thin bones, but they don’t drink cow milk and they don’t fall prey to osteoporosis UNTIL they move to a milk drinking country such as the U.S. and start drinking cow milk. The real research is out there, cow milk it not healthy for humans, it is for baby cows.
In the l950s my father was a young man very sick while working long hours in the oil field. He was so sick he went to a doctor who did lab work and told him he was anemic and asked about his diet. Dad said he took his lunch which was well-balance and he bought a quart or two of milk each day and took the milk to the oil rig and drank the milk each day. The dr told him to stop drinking milk as that is what was making him anemic. He stopped drinking milk and was never anemic again.
I recently read about Dr. Paul Dudley White, President Eisenhower’s cardiologist, who stated that drinking pasteurized cow milk is a major cause of heart disease. He had a lot to say about the unhealthy habit of drinking cow milk.
I doubt you will print this because the milk lobby will not like it.

My ancestors drank it straight from the cow.
My dad said “skim milk is what you slop the hogs with “.
I can think of a lot of relatives who drank whole and ate whole milk products exclusively for their entire lives. Lives which all lasted 87+ years in good health.

Just a thought: Did I miss it is best to consume dairy without rBst growth hormone? Best also being organic? Should these things be mentioned? Thank you

I have been taking Niacin for many years to control cholesterol. Though not as low as the the pharmaceutical companies say it should be, I and my doctor are happy with the levels and ratios. Two years ago my doctor noticed my levels had dropped a few points. When asked if I was doing anything different I explained that we had switched from low fat dairy products to organic whole milk products. The doctor gave me an eye roll, but studies have shown that whole milk has higher levels of omega 3s, and the fat profile of pasture raised dairy cows is even healthier. We haven’t gained any weight from the switch, and the milk tastes so much better as well!

The study and reporting of it are flawed. There’s no distinction made between consumption of dairy containing fat, or fat-free dairy products. Moreover, there’s no side-by-side comparison of full-fat dairy with margarine, or full-fat dairy with low- or no-fat dairy. Nor is there a comparison of consuming other saturated fats – from beef, for instance – with full-fat dairy. In addition, other studies have confirmed that calcium intake – when it’s in the form of food – does reduce the risk of heart attack. We also know – from other well-designed studies, that saturated fat increases LDL levels, and this is correlated with a higher risk of heart attack. This is particularly so for those with a family history of cardiovascular disease. Bottom line – the answer is complicated, depends a lot on your family history and other risk factors.

Thanks for your analysis! I just read this abstract and was so encouraged! I guess I’ll have to go pull the whole study & look at it further. Darn!!

Marion Nestle on the PURE study:

I looked immediately to see who paid for it. The list of funders is very long (it must have been extremely expensive). The list begins:

The PURE Study is an investigator initiated study funded by the Population Health Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, support from CIHR’s Strategy for Patient Oriented Research (SPOR) through the Ontario SPOR Support Unit, as well as the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long­Term Care and through unrestricted grants from several pharmaceutical companies, with major contributions from AstraZeneca (Canada), Sanofi­Aventis (France and Canada), Boehringer Ingelheim (Germany and Canada), Servier, and GlaxoSmithkline, and additional contributions from Novartis and King Pharma and from various national or local organisations in participating countries [the funders that follow are mainly government and private research bodies along with a sugar trade association and more drug companies—the list takes up more than half a column].

Drug companies have a big interest in this topic, especially if dietary approaches to heart disease prevention aren’t proven.

Most no-fat, low fat products taste like junk. I have no fear of using whole milk, butter or whatever. I think the entire fats cause heart disease mantra was the result of Big Sugar wanting to put the blame on something else when it may be sugar causing more damage than fats. While it is nice to see studies like this that are comprehensive and longer term, there still may be other factors that were not considered that lead to the results as reported. How these studies, good or bad, can account for every little difference over 10’s of thousands of people is questionable to me.

I read ‘The Big Fat Surprise’ and have been eating all the whole milk, ice cream (not the super fat ones like Haagen Daaz), rib roasts, avocados, and any kind of fat I want. My total chol = 175

i am 78 years old so many things have changed milk and butter was good for you then it changed to not so good at this point who can I believe

Moderation in all things–?

It’s not whole fats that are the enemy. Sugar is the enemy!

You are absolutely right, Helaine!! Show me anybody who regularly eats processed foods and sugar and you will have a ticking time bomb, ripe for a heart attack and/or stroke. The sugar industry really pulled the wool over this country’s eyes in the 1950’s.

Having converted to a whole food plant based diet a year ago I have learned to look at who funds these research studies. Many are funded by the beef and dairy industries. I can truly say I do not miss dairy products at all. No more bloating or lethargy. And my cholesterol and triglycerides are in the normal range.

I love whole milk yogurt.

My cholesterol and high blood pressure did not go down until I switched from a vegetarian to plant based diet. I had to give up dairy.
I suspect a dairy funded study. I attempted to locate who funded this study, but was unable to.

You have made my day! I am 84 years old, and until about five years ago I pretty much stuck to low-fat or substitute dairy products with their added chemicals to make them feel full-fat. At that point I decided that I had no desire to live to age 100 and to quit the low-fat dairy products I didn’t like and eat what I did like.

I now eat butter, full-fat sour cream and yogurt, half-n-half instead of milk in quiches, Ben and Jerry’s ice cream, cheeses, etc., to my heart’s content but with little twinges of guilt. No more twinges! I drink my coffee black, and I don’t drink milk at all, but I love all of those other dairy products. Thank you for this good news!

Finally!!! I have read data similar to PURE for years, but the”studies” were anecdotal reports, underpowered or had problems with their design &/or statistics, so no valid conclusion could be drawn. This finally releases whole fat dairy products from nutrition jail. A good read that also addresses this issue is “Eat the Yolks” by Liz Wolfe.

Sign me, “Happy to drink 3 glasses of whole milk daily.”

I’m not surprised. I learned a decade or so ago that the body cannot utilize calcium without vitamin D. The body cannot utilize Vitamin D without fat. Ergo, drinking fat-free milk is useless. I switched to 2% and told my doctor what I’ve just said here. He was unable to grasp the concept and insisted that I continue with fat-free products. I ignored him.

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